Summa Theologica by St. Thomas Aquinas
FS: Treatise On Human Acts: Acts Peculiar To Man
Q[20] Of Goodness And Malice In External Human Affairs
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We must next consider goodness and malice as to external actions: under which head there are six points of inquiry:

A[1] Whether goodness and malice is first in the act of the will, or in the external action?

A[2] Whether the whole goodness or malice of the external action depends on the goodness of the will?

A[3] Whether the goodness and malice of the interior act are the same as those of the external action?

A[4] Whether the external action adds any goodness or malice to that of the interior act?

A[5] Whether the consequences of an external action increase its goodness or malice?

A[6] Whether one and the same external action can be both good and evil?