Summa Theologica by St. Thomas Aquinas
SS: Treatise On Fortitude And Temperance
Q[125] Of Fear
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[* St. Thomas calls this vice indifferently'fear'or'timidity.'The translation requires one to adhere to these terms on account of the connection with the passion of fear. Otherwise'cowardice'would be a better rendering.]

We must now consider the vices opposed to fortitude: (1) Fear; (2) Fearlessness; (3) Daring.

Under the first head there are four points of inquiry:

A[1] Whether fear is a sin?

A[2] Whether it is opposed to fortitude?

A[3] Whether it is a mortal sin?

A[4] Whether it excuses from sin, or diminishes it?