Summa Theologica by St. Thomas Aquinas
XP: Treatise On Contrition
Q[22] Of Those Who Can Excommunicate Or Be Excommunicated
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We must now consider those who can excommunicate or be excommunicated. Under this head there are six points of inquiry:

A[1] Whether every priest can excommunicate?

A[2] Whether one who is not a priest can excommunicate?

A[3] Whether one who is excommunicated or suspended, can excommunicate?

A[4] Whether anyone can excommunicate himself, or an equal, or a superior?

A[5] Whether a multitude can be excommunicated?

A[6] Whether one who is already excommunicated can be excommunicated again?