Summa Theologica by St. Thomas Aquinas
XP: Treatise On The Resurrection
Q[71] Of The Suffrages For The Dead
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We must now consider the suffrages for the dead. Under this head there are fourteen points of inquiry:

A[1] Whether suffrages performed by one person can profit others?

A[2] Whether the dead can be assisted by the works of the living?

A[3] Whether the suffrages of sinners profit the dead?

A[4] Whether suffrages for the dead profit those who perform them?

A[5] Whether suffrages profit those who are in hell?

A[6] Whether they profit those who are in purgatory?

A[7] Whether they avail the children in limbo?

A[8] Whether in any way they profit those who are heaven?

A[9] Whether the prayer of the Church, the Sacrament of the altar, and almsgiving profit the departed?

A[10] Whether indulgences granted by the Church profit them?

A[11] Whether the burial service profits the departed?

A[12] Whether suffrages for one dead person profit that person more than others?

A[13] Whether suffrages for many avail each one as much as if they were offered for each individual?

A[14] Whether general suffrages avail those for whom special suffrages are not offered, as much as special and general suffrages together avail those for whom they are offered?